1. Biochemical Processes: primary and secondary metabolism, biochemistry,
2. Bio-technology: plant, animal, microbial, Photo-biology and Photosynthesis Processes, Cell Biology, Genes and Development, Plant Signalling and Response, Plant Nutrition,
3. Growth and Differentiation: seed physiology, hormonal physiology and photomor-phogenesis, Post-Harvest Physiology, Crop Physiology and Stress Physiology, Plant-Microbe and Plant-Insect Interactions,
4. Instrumentation in Biotechnology and Bio-sciences, Bioinformatics.